Poetry: Poetic devices, Lesson Plan, Resources

 

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Intended Learning Outcomes

(Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Attitudes)

 

 

  • The pupils will know what a simile, a metaphor, an adjective and an adverb is.

 

  • The pupils will understand the importance of using descriptive language in their essay writing.

 

  • The pupils will continue to grow in their awareness of the many different elements needed in order to make an essay effective and attractive.

 

  • The pupils will be able to identify examples of descriptive language in a piece of text.

 

 

 

Assessment of Learning Outcomes.

(ie. What assessment will you use to show you that learning has taken place?)

 

 

  • By engaging with the text, by engaging in class discussion, by answering a series of higher and lower order questions, by identifying examples of descriptive language in phase four, and by completing the activity in phase four, the pupils will illustrate their knowledge on what a simile, a metaphor, an adjective and an adverb is.

 

  • By engaging in class discussion and by answering a series of higher and lower order questions throughout the lesson, the pupils will highlight their understanding on the importance of using descriptive language in their essay writing. The pupils will further illustrate their understanding on how and when an adverb and an adjective are correctly used by completing the activity in phase four.

 

  • By scanning the short extract in phase four, as well as completing the short word bank exercise in phase three, the pupils will demonstrate their ability to identify examples of descriptive language in a piece of text.

 

  • By engaging in class discussion and by engaging with the series of activities provided in this lesson, the pupils will continue to grow in their awareness of the many different elements needed in order to make an essay effective and attractive.

 

 

KEY RESOURCES
Textual
Hand-out:
  • Narrative hand-out
  • Word bank template
  • Activity task instructions

 

Display and Electronic media 

PowerPoint:
  • Explanation of the different types of descriptive language
  • Whiteboard

 

 

Teaching Strategy:

 

Activity based learning. 

 

Phase  1

Brief Outline

 

 

 

  • I will begin my lesson with an oral recap of the week’s lessons by asking the pupils a series of higher and lower order questions. For example:
    • What is the ‘plot’ of an essay?
    • What is meant by the ‘tone’ an essay?
    • Why is it beneficial to create a character profile for your essay’s protagonist/characters?
    • Why should one ‘think outside the box’ when looking at essay titles?
    • Why should one create a brainstorm before writing their essay?
    • I will place the pupils into pairs; one pupil will be blind folded and the other pupil will be given an item of food.
    • I will inform the non-blind folded pupils that they will have two minutes to describe to their partner what their item of food looks like, smells like, tastes like etc. I will further inform the pupils that the first group to guess correctly will win a prize.
    • When the exercise is over, I will inform the pupils that we will be looking at descriptive language in today’s lesson.
    • I will ask the pupils what words come to mind when they hear the term ‘descriptive language’.
    • I will record the pupil’s responses on the board via brainstorm.
    • I will further ask the pupil’s why they think it is effective/important to use descriptive language.
    • I will record the pupil’s responses on the board and I will engage the pupils in a brief oral classroom discussion based on the information recorded on the board and the exercise they completed at the start of the lesson.

 

Phase 2 Brief Outline
 

 

 

  • I will hand-out each pupil a hand-out.
  • I will ask two pupils to read the hand-out aloud.
  • When the pupils have completed reading the hand-out, I will re-read it to reiterate the main points.
  • I will ask the pupils a series of higher and lower order questions based on the hand-out. For example:
    • Why do we use descriptive language?
    • What are the commonly seen forms of descriptive language?
    • Why do you think it is effective to use descriptive language in your writing having read this text?
    • I will record the pupil’s responses on the board.
    • Via PowerPoint, I will display what adjectives, verbs, nouns, adverbs, similes and metaphors are, providing examples for each. (This is will allow me to re-iterate the important meaning and use of each concept in terms of descriptive language).

 

 

Phase 3 Brief Outline
 

  • I will display six words on the whiteboard (a mixture of nouns and verbs).
  • I will inform the pupils that they will have four minutes to write down as many adverbs, adjectives, and similes they can think of in conjunction with these six words.
  • I will walk around the class to aid any pupils who may find this task difficult.
  • When the four minutes are up, I will hand-out each pupil a template.
  • As a class, we will create a ‘word bank’ on the board containing all the adjectives, adverbs and similes they came up with. (The pupils will fill out their templates as we go along. This sheet will benefit the pupils in their later essays and writing tasks.)

 

Phase 4 Brief Outline
 

  • On the whiteboard, I will display a short descriptive extract.
  • I will read the short extract aloud for the pupils. I will then ask the pupils a series of higher and lower order questions based on the extract. For example:
    • Do you think the use of descriptive language was effective in this piece of writing, why?
    • Do we see adjectives, adverbs, similes or metaphors in this text, where?
    • I will inform the pupils that they will now complete a short task to demonstrate their descriptive writing skills.
    • I will hand-out the pupils a small slip of paper containing instructions.
    • I will inform the pupils that they will have five minutes to complete the task.
    • I will walk around the room to aid any pupils who may find this task difficult.
    • I will also remind the pupils to refer back to their word banks created in phase 3.
Phase 5 Brief Outline
 

  • When the five minutes are up, I will ask seven pupils (as there are seven different writing projects) to read aloud their work.
  • After each pupil has read aloud their work, I will engage the pupil’s in a brief oral discussion based on what they have just heard.
  • I will further ask the pupils to identify the different forms (adverb, adjective etc.) of descriptive writing they heard throughout each piece.
  • To conclude my lesson, I will ask the pupils a series of higher and lower order questions based on the lesson. For example:
    • What is a simile?
    • Can you give me an example of a simile?
    • How is the use of metaphor effective in descriptive language?
    • Why do we use descriptive language?
    • I will assign the pupils their homework. (To print off/photo copy their favourite books introduction and conclusion.)

 

poetry_fingers_header

Poems

       Mid-Term Break

I sat all morning in the college sick bay
Counting bells knelling classes to a close.
At two o’clock our neighbours drove me home.

In the porch I met my father crying–
He had always taken funerals in his stride–
And Big Jim Evans saying it was a hard blow.

The baby cooed and laughed and rocked the pram
When I came in, and I was embarrassed
By old men standing up to shake my hand

And tell me they were “sorry for my trouble,”
Whispers informed strangers I was the eldest,
Away at school, as my mother held my hand

In hers and coughed out angry tearless sighs.
At ten o’clock the ambulance arrived
With the corpse, stanched and bandaged by the nurses.

Next morning I went up into the room. Snowdrops
And candles soothed the bedside; I saw him
For the first time in six weeks. Paler now,

Wearing a poppy bruise on his left temple,
He lay in the four foot box as in his cot.
No gaudy scars, the bumper knocked him clear.

A four foot box, a foot for every year.

–          Seamus Heaney

 

 

 

Dulce Et Decorum Est

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots
But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
Of disappointed shells that dropped behind.

GAS! Gas! Quick, boys!– An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling
And floundering like a man in fire or lime.–
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light
As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.

In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

If in some smothering dreams you too could pace
Behind the wagon that we flung him in,
And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,
His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;
If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud
Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,–
My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
To children ardent for some desperate glory,
The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est
Pro patria mori.

–          Wilfred Owen

My Best Friend

I never really told you,

How much you mean to me,

I guess I kinda forgot,

How much you really mean,

When life seems to get hard,

You never run away,

You stay beside me,

And help me all the way.

The memories I have,

Will stay with me always,

Until the day I die,

I’ll remember your face,

And even after that,

I hope we meet again,

Because you truly are,

My very best friend.

(Re-write this poem adding at least two new poetic techniques)

 

 

Poetic Devices

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‘Poetry is the kind of thing poets write.’ — Robert Frost

 

‘Man, if you gotta ask, you’ll never know.’ — Louis Armstrong

A POET IS LIMITED in the materials he can use in creating his works: all he has are words to express his ideas and feelings. These words need to be precisely right on several levels at once:

• They must sound right to the listener

• They must be arranged in a relationship and placed on the page in ways that are at once easy to follow and assist the reader in understanding

• They must probe the depths of human thought, emotion, and empathy, while appearing simple, self-contained, and unpretentious

Fortunately, the English language contains a wide range of words from which to choose for almost every thought, and there are also numerous plans or methods of arrangement of these words, called poetic devices, which can assist the writer in developing cogent expressions pleasing to his readers. Even though most poetry today is read silently, it must still carry with it the feeling of being spoken aloud, and the reader should practice “hearing” it in order to catch all of the artfulness with which the poet has created his work.

Some of the poetic devices used by poets to convey the above include:

Alliteration: Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. A somewhat looser definition is that it is the use of the same consonant in any part of adjacent words.

  • Example: fast and furious
  • Example: Peter and Andrew patted the pony at Ascot

 Assonance: Repeated vowel sounds in words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. These should be in sounds that are accented, or stressed, rather than in vowel sounds that are unaccented.

  • Example: He’s a bruisin’ loser

Consonance: Repeated consonant sounds at the ending of words placed near each other, usually on the same or adjacent lines. These should be in sounds that are accented, or stressed, rather than in vowel sounds that are unaccented. This produces a pleasing kind of near-rhyme.

  • Example: boats into the past
  • Example: cool soul

Cacophony: A discordant series of harsh, unpleasant sounds helps to convey disorder. This is often furthered by the combined effect of the meaning and the difficulty of pronunciation.

  • Example: My stick fingers click with a snicker

And, chuckling, they knuckle the keys;

Light-footed, my steel feelers flicker

And pluck from these keys melodies.

—“Player Piano,” John Updike

Apostrophe: A figure of speech in which a person not present is addressed.

Personification:  Giving human attributes to an animal, object or idea.

  • For example, the bike stood up against the wall.

Irony: -A literary device which reveals concealed or contradictory meanings.

Repetition: The purposeful re-use of words and phrases for an effect. It has been a central part of poetry in many cultures. Many of the Psalms use this device as one of their unifying elements.

  • Example: I was glad; so very, very glad.

Allusion: A brief reference to some person, historical event, work of art, or Biblical or mythological situation or character.

Hyperbole: An outrageous exaggeration used for effect.

  • Example: He weighs a ton.

 

Simile: A direct comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as.”

  • Example: He’s as dumb as an ox.
  • Example: Her eyes are like comets.

 

Metaphor: A direct comparison between two unlike things, stating that one is the other or does the action of the other.

  • Example: He’s a zero. Example: Her fingers danced across the keyboard.

Oxymoron: A combination of two words that appear to contradict each other.

  • Example: a pointless point of view; bittersweet

 

Enjambment – A run-on line of poetry in which logical and grammatical sense carries over from one line into the next. An enjambed line differs from an end-stopped line in which the grammatical and logical sense is completed within the line.

  • For example:

That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,

Looking as if she were alive. I call

That piece a wonder, now….

Archaism – The use of deliberately old-fashioned language to make something feel old

Euphemism – A word or phrase that takes the place of a unpleasant, or impolite reality. The use of passed away for died.

Onomatopoeia: Words that sound like their meanings.

  • Example: boom, buzz, crackle, gurgle, hiss, pop, sizzle, snap, swoosh, whir, zip
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